Posted on

(Dictionary/Negative-ない Form)CLAUSE1とCLAUSE2 as “C1 and C2” (pt. 2 of 2)

(Dictionary Form/Negative-ない Form)CLAUSE1とCLAUSE2 as (“When/If/Whenever C1,C2”) (pt. 2 of 2)

This grammar pattern is one of the most commonly used constructions because it has so many different meanings depending on the tense of the overall sentence, thus making it also one of the most tricky grammar constructs.

The one rule that sustains throughout all instances of this grammar construct however is that CLAUSE1 must either be in the Dictionary Form of the Negative-ない Form. Therefore, what changes the meaning of the grammar construct is the tense that CLAUSE2 is in. The main distinction is between when CLAUSE2 is in the past tense and when CLAUSE2 is in the non-past tense, both scenarios of which further break down into a number of next-tier conditional cases.

When CLAUSE2 is in the non-past tense:
Then both CLAUSE1 and CLAUSE2 represent more hypohetical than specific occurences, and the entire statement itself describes their natural relationship. And so then, one of the following will apply:

1.) CLAUSE2 is a logical or natural result of CLAUSE1, as in, “If CLAUSE1, CLAUSE2” or “CLAUSE1, and CLAUSE2 (will naturally follow)”

2.) CLAUSE2 is a habitaul result of CLAUSE1, as in, “Whenever CLAUSE1, CLAUSE2”

Example(s): (Case #01.)

次の角を左に曲がると、便所があるよ。
Tsugi no kado o hidari ni magaru to, benjyo ga aru yo.
(If you make a left at the next corner, there’ll be a toilet there./Make a left at the next corner and there should be a toilet.)

講義を聞かないと、試験に落ちますよ。
Kougi o kikanai to, shiken ni ochimasuyo.
(If you don’t listen to the lecture, you’ll fail the exam./You don’t listen to the lecture and you’ll fail the exam.)

Example(s): (Case #02.)

牛乳を飲むとお腹が痛いです。
Gyuunyuu o nomu to onaka ga itai desu.
(Whenever I drink milk, my stomach hurts.)

期末試験になるとすごく心配する。
Kimatsu shiken ni naru to sugoku shinpai suru.
(Whenever final exams come around, I get super worried.)

*Notice that no matter which conditional case this grammar pattern takes on, CLAUSE2 can never be expressed as something volitional to the speaker (i.e. a demand, request, intention, etc.).