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NOUN + 以外 as “except for NOUN”

NOUN + 以外 as “except for NOUN”

The word 以外 (igai), consisting for the characters 以 to mean “in view of, compared with, etc.” and 外 to mean “outside, exterior, etc.” can be used with a noun to literally mean “in view of everything outside that noun.” More naturally, this will translate to “except NOUN, with the exception of NOUN, other than NOUN, besides NOUN, apart from NOUN, etc.” When this grammar pattern is employed, it is often but not always followed by the particle に or は.


Boku wa anata igai ni tomodachi ga inai.
(I have no friends except for you.)

Sono team wa ace igai yowai.
(Everyone on that team other than the ace is weak.)

George Washington igai no mina wa shiken ni ochita.
(Everyone except George Washington failed the test.)

Kare wa nichiyoubi igai ni gym de undou shimasu.
(He goes to the gym everyday except Sunday.)