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XにもかかわらずY as “despite X, Y”

XにもかかわらずY as “despite X, Y”

The phrasing XにもかかわらずY literally translates to “Y, while not being affected by X.” (The word 関わる means “to be influenced, to be affected” and is conjugated into its ず-Form.) However, when used as a grammar pattern, it expresses the more natural meaning of “despite X, Y.” Other English translations of its function include: “in spite of,” “although,” “though,” “nevertheless;” and as is the case with these English phrases, this expression, XにもかかわらずY, is used to indicate Y occurs even though it is generally not expected to given the circumstances established by X. XにもかかわらずY is generally used in formal language and can be used with NOUN words, ADJECTIVE words, and VERB words.

Plain-Form-VERB X + にもかかわらず + Y
い-ADJECTIVE X + にもかかわらず + Y
(NOUN/な-ADJECTIVE) X + (である) + にもかかわらず + Y

Onaka o kowashita ni mo kakawarazu, kare wa tabetsuzuketa.
(“Despite the fact that his stomach was hurting, he continued eating.”)

Shiken ga sugoku muzukashikatta ni mo kakawarazu, mina wa ukatta.
(“Despite the fact that the test was very diffcult, everyone managed to pass.”)

Shinsotsu de aru ni mo kakawarazu, kare wa watashi yori mo ooi ni kasegu.
(“Despite being a recent graduate, he makes a lot more money than I do!”)

Shiai ga mou kimatte ita. Ni mo kakawarazu, mina wa saigo made karada o ko ni shita.
(“The match was already decided. Nevertheless, everyone gave it their all until the very end.”)