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The はず (筈) Masterpost

はず (筈) Masterpost

~はずです as “should be~, suppose to~, reason to believe~, etc.”

The grammar pattern ~はずです is used to express that the speaker expects something to be or occur a certain way. (The word はず (筈) originally means nock, as in the nock of a bow. Historically, it was used as a metaphor to denote where on a bow the bowstring “should be;” the phrase evolved to have the idiomatic, grammatical purpose it does today.) Common translations of ~はずです include “suppose to be~, should be~, expect to be~, reason to believe~, thought that~, should work out as~, ought to be~, sure that~, must be~, etc.”
This grammar pattern cannot be used to refer to something that the speaker performs themselves unless that something did not turn out as the speaker had expected or intended (and thus was actually “out of their control”).

While not consistently the best choice for the translation for ~はずです、 the wording of “reason to believe~” may serve as a good mnemonic interpretation as it expresses the speaker’s expectations for something to be true in an objective sense and not so much in the sense of anticipating or looking forward to something. This wording also corresponds with the grammar pattern’s restriction of usage when referring to something that the speaker performs themselves, as saying something like “I have reason to believe I will eat out for lunch” comes off as unnatural.

Construction:
Plain-Form-VERB + はずです
い-ADJECTIVE + はずです
な-ADJECTIVE + (な/である/だった/であった/でなかった) + はずです
NOUN + (な/である/だった/であった/でなかった) + はずです

NOUN Example(s):
Present:
明日の集会は午後三時のはずです。
Ashita no shuukai wa gogo sanji no hazu desu.
Tommorow’s meeting should be at 3 P.M.
Negative:
彼の言葉は嘘ではないはずです。
Kare no kotoba wa uso de wa nai hazu desu.
I have every reason to believe that his words are not lies.
Past:
昨日の集会は午後三時だったはずです。
Kinou no shuukai wa gogo sanji datta hazu desu.
Yesterday’s meeting should’ve been at 3 P.M.

い-ADJECTIVE Example(s):
Present:
彼女の作ったものは美味しいはずです。
Kanojo no tsukutta mono wa oishii hazu desu.
Anything she makes has got to be delicious.
Negative:
彼女の作ったものは美味しくないはずです。
Kanojo no tsukutta mono wa oishikunai hazu desu.
Anything she makes has got to be not delicious.
Past:
彼女の作ったものは美味しかったはずです
Kanojo no tsukutta mono wa oishikatta hazu desu.
I’m sure whatever she made was delicious.

な-ADJECTIVE Example(s):
Present:
雨が降っていましたから、みちは危険なはずです。
Ame ga futte imashita kara, michi wa kiken na hazu desu.
It was pouring, so the road should be dangerous.
Negative:
あの場所は静かではないはずです。
Ano basho wa shizuka de wa nai hazu desu.
That place should be not quiet.
Past:
僕はいなかったから、静かだったはずです。
Boku wa inakatta kara, shizuka datta hazu desu.
I wasn’t there so I’m sure it was peaceful.

VERB Example(s):
先生は今オフィスにいらっしゃるはずだ。
Sensei wa ima office ni irassharu hazu da.
The teacher should be in her office right now.
彼女は明日アメリカからつくはずです。
Kanojo wa ashita America kara tsuku hazu desu.
She is suppose to be arriving from America tomorrow.
学生たちは毎日8時までに教室にいるはずなのに。。。
Gakuseitachi wa mainichi hachiji made ni kyoushitsu ni iru hazu na no ni…
The students are suppose to be in the classroom by 8 o’clock everyday, and yet…
小学生はそんなに複雑話題を理解できないはずです。
Shougakusei wa sonnnani fukuzatsu wadai o rikai dekinai hazu desu.
I don’t expect elementary school students to understand such a complex topic.

*As is the case with many other grammar patterns, ~はず can be used in a clause that modifies a noun. (Ex. いるはず人はどこですか? – “Where is the person who is suppose to be here?”)

The ~はずです grammar pattern is one of the trickiest when it comes to past-tense and negative conjugation because not only can you conjugate the WORD you use with the phrasing はずです to form the grammar pattern but you can also choose to conjugate the phrasing はずです itself. You can even form a double conjugation of sorts for both.

~はずだった as “should have~ (but didn’t), was supposed to~ (but didn’t), etc.” (Past-tense):

Construction:
Plain-Past-Form-VERB + はずです = “suppose to be/should be that VERBed”
Plain-Present-Form-VERB + はずだった = “suppose to be/should be that VERBed (but did not)”

As shown in the examples above, when the WORD used with the grammar pattern ~はずです is conjugated into the past-tense, it does not affect the grammar pattern’s meaning of “should be~, suppose to~, reason to believe~, etc.” However, when the phrasing はずです itself is conjugated into the past-tense (e.g. はずだった), this form adds on the implication that the speaker’s expectations did not come true and expresses a degree of regret or dissatisfaction.
*This however does not mean that instances of this grammar pattern that conjugate the WORD instead of はずですinto the past-tense express expectations that always come true. Quite the contrary, as phrases such as のに, なんだけど, なんですが are commonly used in conjunction with this grammar pattern to tackle on the meaning of “should’ve been~, but wasn’t…” And of course, another way to tell if the expectation did not come true is if the person who performs the action is the speaker themselves, as that would mean things did not occur as they had expected.

Example(s):

傘を持ってきたはずなのに。。。
Kesa o motte kita hazu na no ni…
“I thought I brought my umbrella, but… (it turns out I didn’t)”
*Note how the simple inclusion of のに confirms that the expectation was not met and there is now resulting dissatisfaction 

彼女は先に行ったはずだ。
Kanojo wa saki ni itta hazu da
“She must have gone ahead.”
*Conversely, note how in this example, although the VERB word is conjugated into the past-tense, with the absence of のに or some other such phrasing, what the speaker is expecting still very well may actually be true

私たちは楽しい時を過ごすはずだった
Watashitachi wa tanoshii toki o sugosu hazu datta
“We were supposed to have a good time (but didn’t)”
*And finally, note how in this example, the presence of  だった affirms that the expectation was not met, grammatically (and quite literally) making said expectation a thing of the past that has now been replaced with dissatisfaction  

彼女は一時までに電話するはずだ
“She’s suppose to call by 1 o’clock/I expect she’ll call by 1 o’clock.”
彼女は一時までに電話したはずだ
“I expect she called by 1 o’clock.”
彼女は一時までに電話するはずだった
“She was supposed to call by 1 o’clock (but she didn’t).”
彼女は一時までに電話したはずなのに。。。
“It should be that she had called by 1 o’clock, but… (she didn’t)
彼女は一時までに電話したはずだった
“She was supposed to have called by 1 o’clock (but she didn’t)“
*Note that the final two essentially have the same meaning, though latter expresses more dissatisfaction due to the inclusion of だった in はずだった

~はずがない as “there’s no way that~, cannot be~, impossible that~, highly unlikely that~, etc.” (Negative):

Construction:
Negative-Form-VERB + はずです = “suppose to be/should be that does not VERB”
Non-Negative-Form-VERB + はずがない = “there’s no way that does VERB”
*The latter obviously has a stronger emphasis.     

Another approach to using negative form with ~はずです is to change it to ~はずがない, which applies a stronger sense of emphasis as can be perceived in its common translations, including “there’s no way that~, cannot be~, impossible that~, highly unlikely that~, etc.” It can be considered that this in turn makes ~はずがない a grammar pattern in and of itself.

~はずがない is very similar to the other grammar pattern ~わけがない and in most cases is very much interchangeable with it. The slight difference between the two in regard to intentions behind usage is that ~はずがない will at times implies a logical reason for denying something while ~わけがない can be said without one just because.

* ~はずがない can also be observed being used as variants such as ~はずはない and ~はずもない

Example(s):
それが本当のはずがない
Sore ga hontou no hazu ga nai
There’s no way that’s true.

彼女が嘘をつくはずがない
Kanojo ga uso o tsuku hazu ga nai
There’s no way that she’s lying.

彼は入院したから、明日の試合に参加するはずがない
Kare wa nyuuin shita kara, ashita no shiai ni sanka suru hazu ga nai
He’s been admitted to the hospital, so there’s no way he’ll be able to participate in the match tomorrow.

真面目な学生の田中は学校をサボっているはずがない
Majime na gakusei no Tanaka wa gakkou o sabotte iru hazu ga nai
There’s no way Tanaka, the serious student, would be skipping school.

はずではない seems to be another way to invoke a negative form of this grammar pattern albeit much more seldom. Perhaps this is due to the present-tense phrasing of はずではない and はずではありません being easily confused with using the negative form to ask a question. Most predominantly, the construction of the present-tense Dictionary-Form of a VERB with the past-tense phrasing of はずではなかった or はずではありませんでした has the intention of expressing that one “was not supposed to do something” with a feeling of regret or dissatisfaction.

Example(s):
こんなはずじゃなかったのに
konna hazu jyanakatta no ni
It wasn’t supposed to go this way

Double Negative with ~はずがない Example(s):
彼は嘘をつかないはずがない
Kare wa uso o tsukanai hazu ga nai
There’s no way he won’t lie.

*Instances of this double negative are more commonly used when the WORD is verb, as opposed to adjective and nouns, due to there being a better separation between the action and the expectation.

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〜気味 as “slightly〜”

〜気味 as “slightly〜”

The grammar pattern 〜気味 (ぎみ) Is used to express that something is slightly in a certain state or condition. In contrast to the similar grammar pattern 〜勝ち (がち) that is used to express a general (recurring) tendency, 〜気味 (ぎみ) is used to describe a current state or condition. Similarly to 〜勝ち (がち), this grammar pattern is generally used to express a state or condition that is negative, or rather, slightly negative. Translations include “slightly〜, 〜like, 〜looking, seems to〜, feels like〜, having the tendency of〜.”

Perhaps a reason why in some contexts the translation of 〜気味 (ぎみ) may come out as “having the tendency of〜,” which is definition much more in line with 〜勝ち (がち) is that such a case would be working the same way as an English sentence such as “Yeah, my watch runs a bit late” may imply that the state of being slightly late is an ongoing state (perhaps because it cannot be fixed, perhaps because it returns to that state every time batteries are replaced, etc.) not so much through the literal interpretation of the exact words used but through the speaker’s manner of speech and the context of the conversation before that utterance.

Construction:
Pre-ます-Form VERB + 〜気味
NOUN + 気味
*Words that can be used with 気味 are limited

Example(s):
風邪気味
Kazegimi
A slight cold

彼は少し太り気味です。
Kare wa sukoshi futorigimi desu.
He is a bit on the fat side.

私は下痢気味だ。
Watashi wa gerigimi da.
I seem to have a touch of diarrhea.

昨日徹夜したから、少々疲れ気味
Kinou tetsuya shita kara, shoushou tsukaregimi da.
I stayed up all night, so I’m feeling a bit tired

彼は遠慮気味に返事しました。
Kare wa enryougimi ni henji shimashita.
He responded with a touch of hesitation.

今朝もバスは遅れ気味だった。
Kesa mo bus wa okuregimi datta.
The bus was a running a bit late this morning too.

今日は授業で発表しますから、少し緊張気味です。
Kyou wa jyugyou de happyou shimasu kara, sukoshi kinchougimi desu.
I will be making a presentation in class today, so I’m feeling a bit nervous.

Similar Grammar:
〜勝ち (がち)
〜みたい

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #131. “Conserving Electricity (Special Web Exclusive Prequel)” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #131. “Conserving Electricity (Special Web Exclusive Prequel)” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#131.
「節電」篇予告(Web限定配信)
“Conserving Electricity (Special Web Exclusive Prequel)”

Script:


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #129. “Parent-Child Dodgeball” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #129. “Parent-Child Dodgeball” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#129.
「親子でドッジボール」篇
“Parent-Child Dodgeball”

Script:

お小遣い、値上げ!
How’s this for lowering my allowance!
ニンジン残すな!
Eat your damn vegetables!
チルドレンって言うな!
Stop calling us kids!
学生は勉強しろ!
Students should be studying!
学生だけ3年無料、ずるいッ!
It’s not fair that only students get three years of free service!
家族も2年無料じゃないか!
Families get two years free too by extension!
あんた、何歳!?
You! Just how old are you anyway?!
58!
58!
けっこうイッてのねぇ!
You’re hanging on there pretty well, aren’t ya?
うるさいッ!
Be quiet!


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #128. “Matsuki-sensei” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #128. “Matsuki-sensei” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#128.
「松木先生」篇
“Matsuki-sensei”

Script:

キャッチ!(Catch・捕る)
Catch!
おぉ~、ナイス・オア・ナイス!(Nice・魅力ある)
Whoa! Nice! Nice!
ヘイヘイ!(Hey・おーい)
Over here!
展開しろ展開!
Come on! Let’s get a move on!
キャッチ!(Catch・捕る)
Catch!
おぉ~、いいぞ~
Nice one!
これが英語の授業?
This is suppose to be an English class?
体で覚えるってことだ
It’s called learning through physical experience.
イングリッシュ! イングリッシュ!(English・英語)
Speak in English! English!
いけいけいけ!
Go! Go! Go!
スッロー!(Throw・投げる)
Throw!
ヘッド!(Head・頭)
Head!
オー・マイ・ゴッド…(Oh, my god・なんてこった)
Oh, my god!
ディス・イズ・ボール(This is the ball・これはボールです)
This is the ball!
いいね発音
That’s some nice pronunciation there!
カワイイ女子学生バワー!(Power・力)
Power!
ウップス(Oops・おっと)
Oops!
こっちフリーだ、フリー!
Over here! This guy’s open!
スロー!(Throw・投げる)
Throw!
オー・ノー!(Oh no・しまった)
Oh no!
学生3年無料ってなんて言うんですか?
What’s this no charge for three years student discount thing I’ve been hearing about?
スチューデント・スリー・イヤー・スリー(Student three year free・学生3年無料)
Student three year free!
リアリー?(Really・本当に)
Really?!
スリー・イヤー・スリーだ!(Three year free・3年無料)
Three year free!
うるさい先生!
Be quiet, sensei!
先生にうるさいって言うな~
Don’t go telling a teacher to be quiet now.


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #122. “Guts-sensei” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #122. “Guts-sensei” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#122.
「ガッツ先生」篇
“Guts-sensei”

Script:

礼!
Bow!
読んでみろ
Someone, give this a read.
ただより高いものはない
“There’s nothing more expensive than getting something for free.”
何言ってんの
What are you talking about?
えっ?
Huh?
ただが一番安いでしょ。四角だよ四角。ただより四角いものはない
“Free” by definition is the complete opposite of expensive. It’s “square.” “Square!” “There’s nothing more square than free.”
たしかに四角だ
The Chinese character for “free” certainly is square.
意味はわからない。
You lot just don’t get it, do you?
授業終わり
Class dismissed.
もう終わり!?
It’s over already?!
素晴らしい…
How brilliant…
太蔵?
Taizou?!
大丈夫かお前?
Are you alright, you?
もう少し考えて生きな…
Try to be a little less impressed, huh?
私も学生に戻ろうかしら
I wonder if I should re-enroll too.
学生3年無料だしね
Students get three years of free basic service after all.


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #120. “Otou-san Re-enrolls” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #120. “Otou-san Re-enrolls” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#120.
「父やり直す」
“Otou-san Re-enrolls”

Script:

どうしたと? ボーッとして
What’s the matter? You keep spacing out.
ん? 学生やり直せたらなって
I was just wondering what it’d be like if I could redo my high school years.
やり直せばよかよ
It’d be great if you could.
遅すぎることなんてなか
There’s no such thing as something that goes by too slow.
そうか!
私が学生になっても、基本料は三年無料やろか?
If I were to become a student again, I wonder if I could get three years of free basic service?
何想像しとっと?
Hey now, what are you two imagining there?
いえ、何も!
N-nothing at all!
学生に戻ります、こいつと!
I want to be a student again! With him!
僕も?
Me too?
じゃ、学生はお酒はいかんね
In that case, doesn’t look like I can let you drink anymore of this!
あっ、まだ残ってる…ぅ…
Ah! There was still… some left…
ここが学校?
This is a school?
あんたもやり直したくなったの?
You two redoing your high school years too?
同級生か!?
A fellow classmate?
よろしこ
Lookin’ forward to our time together.


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #106. “Hot Pot Party” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #106. “Hot Pot Party” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#106.
「鍋パーティ」篇
“Hot Pot Party”

Script:

はいっ
Here we go!
ワァ~!
Wow!
ありがとう、えいこ
Thank you, Eiko.
母さんの名を呼び捨てに…!
Saying her name all casually already…
いいじゃない、夫婦なんだから
It’s fine, isn’t it? They’re a couple now after all.
夫婦でフーフー
A couple!
まだ夫婦じゃない!
They aren’t a couple yet!
新しいおじいちゃんは何をしているんですか?
So, what does our new grandfather do for a living?
劇団員です
I’m part of a theatre troupe.
大変でしょ
That sounds like a lot of work.
ええ。でも夢があるんです
Yes, but it’s a dream come true for me.
夢じゃ食えないよ
As if dreams are going to put bread on the table.
お金のことは平気よ。次郎がいるんですもの
You don’t have to worry about money. We’ve got Jirou after all.
こいつの金を俺が稼ぐんですか!?
I’m going to be providing for him?!
こいつじゃないでしょ。お父さんでしょ
Not “him.” He’s your father now.
ダメだぞ、次郎
I want you to think about what you said, Jirou.
さあさ、お鍋が煮えましたよ
Come, let’s eat now, the food’s ready.
熱いよ!
That’s hot!


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #105. “Street Performer Ayu” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #105. “Street Performer Ayu” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#105.
「流しのAyu」篇
“Street Performer Ayu”

Script:

雨止まないわね
This rain’s just not letting up, is it?
止まない雨はない
There’s always a rainbow at the end of every rain.
こんばんは。一曲いいですか?
Good evening. Would you care for a ballad?
流しか
A street performer, huh?
まあいいじゃないか
Come on, it’s fine, isn’t it?
ありがとうございます
Thank you very much.
やってくれ
Show us what you got.
それじゃ新曲いきます
Very well, here’s our newest piece.
うわさ話もすべてただ(ただ~)♪カァ~
♪ Talk about rumors is all just (just)~ ♪
別れ話もすべてただ(ただ~)
♪ Talk about separating is all just (just) ~ ♪
ただただただとも 涙雨
♪ Just-just-just Friends~ ♪
♪ The rain, it pours as I weep~ ♪
あんた
Your voice…
はい
Yes?
いい声だ
You’re going places.
サンキュー
Thank you.
♪なみだっあっあぁ~めぇ~
♪ Tee-eeea-eeaaarrrsss~ ♪
お前じゃない!
I wasn’t talking about you!


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog

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White Family (SoftBank) CM #104. “Stepfather Objection” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

White Family (SoftBank) CM #104. “Stepfather Objection” Japanese CM [with English subtitles]

#104.
「父反対する」篇
“Stepfather Objection”

Script:

考え直してくださいよ、母さん!
Please think this over some more, Mother!
あら~、恋に年の差なんて~
This is love we’re talking about. Age is just a number.
たったの50歳ですよ
It’s only a gap of 50 years.
ふんっ
Hmph!
でもステキね~
Come now, this is wonderful news.
あっ、これ、ベトナムに行って掘ってきたよ
Ah! I forgot. I brought back this souvenir for you from my trip to Vietnam.
あら、ステキなお芋♪
Oh my! What a wonderful potato!
ロマンチック
How romantic~!
僕は反対です!
I’m absolutely against this!
でもいいじゃない。24時間通話無料の家族が増えるんだから
It’s fine, isn’t it? Calls to your family are free 24 hours a day and now our family just got that much bigger!
僕よりも若いおじいちゃんです
Now we have a grandfather who’s younger than even me.
どうした次郎?
What’s the matter, Jirou?
もういい!
Whatever then! I’m done with this!
あなた
Dear!
あーーーーーーーーーーーっ!
Aaaaaaaaaahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhーーーーーー!!!


The White Family (白戸家) is an advertising campaign by the Japanese multinational telecommunications and Internet corporation SoftBank Group Corp. which features a white Hokkaido inu, Otou-san, as the father of a household.

More information about it can be read here:
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2012/04/29/general/otosan-japans-top-dog